Castles

Chervone

Location: 10 km from town of Zolochiv.

On a hill of Holohir chain of mountains, between Chervone ana Yasenivtsi villages there is a tower up above that tells a legend that a local landlord accidentally killed his son at the shooting and ordered to put up a monument for this reason. According to some other legends, a Tatar Khan is supposed to be buried there.

In addition, it is one of the watch-dog towers since late middle ages, just like tower in Piatnychany village near Peremyshliany.

Those are the unique towers built in close visibility to each other on the Holohir chain of mountains.

Tustan’ (Urych)

Location: 15 km from town of Skole.

In the Eastern part of the village on a natural stone terrace in between rocks there are ruins of a castle. Until now there is a single wall as wide as 2.5 m. The wall is laid with broken stone and closes the natural terrace from the south.

It is most likely that here was the gate to the castle.

The remnants of the old castle are the traces of an Old Rus’ city of Tustan’. According to some assumptions, the castle belonged to a Halych king or boyar. The task of the citadel in the village of Urychi was to control the trade way running to Hungary through Skhidnytsya, Urych, Verkhnye Syn’ovydne and Skole. It was a hard way used for carrying salt from Drohobych land. Tustan’ castle was declined in XV or XVI  century.

 

Dobromyl’

Location: on the top of the mountain Slipa near Ternava village, 4 km eastward Dobromyl’ in Staro-Sambirskyy rayon.

The first wooden castle near Dobromyl was established in 1450 by Lviv huntsman Mykola Herburt but soon after in 1497 it was burnt to ashes by Tatar attack.

King Sigismund awarded the city with Magdeburg right in 1566 under the endeavour of the owner of salt mines Stanislav Herburt. The town got fortified paled. Stanislav Herburt decided to rebuild the wooden castle with stone and bricks. Yan Shchensnyy Herburt (1547-1616) has continued this work in 1614. He was a profound cultural and political figure who wrote poetry in Ukrainian. In 1611 he invited Yan Sheliha, a printer from Cracow and they both established a printing house in Dobromyl.

The declining years of the castle started in 1622 when Yan Shchensny sold it to Koniecpolski magnates.

By the ruins of basements and walls we can judge that the castle was of rectangular (oval) shape repeating the shape of the mountain and 4 towers. Octahedral gate tower dominated in he castle although prior it was four-tiers.

On the top of the mountain the castle was ringed by earth mound and a deep moat. There were two entrances to the castle: the first one would have path from the South trough Ternava village, the other would path from North – from Basilian monastery.

The Dobromyl citadel was merely a defensive stronghold with temporarily housing capacity.

The castle has turned into ruins when it was left without proper care.

Brody

 

Location: ruins of the castle and cell are 101 km away from Lviv in the town of Brody

The first mentioning of the town of Brody dates back to 1084. In the years 1584 to 1629 the town was called Lyubych. The name derives from family arms ‘Lyubych’ of Stanislav Zholkiewski.

Both the castle and the cell were constructed by architect Andre del Aque and Boplan in 1630-1635 and belonged to magnate Koniecpolski.

The ruins of the castle and the cell are the main part of the former rampart on the territory of the stronghold. At those times the town was a fortress built by new Holland-Italian fortification system. The castle was a five angle bastion with a lot of cells, encircled with a deep moat. There was a two storey palace in the courtyard as big as 89000 sq.m. A dam through a swing bridge and a gate in bastion were the entrances to the castle from. There was a tower above the bastion.

In 1648 the Brody Castle was placed under the state of siege by Colonels Nechay and Stupa. In 1772 Austian government has ordered to demolish the castle. Two bastions from the citie’s part, some cells, entrance gate and tower were then destroyed. After a while the castle was ruined during two World Wars and in Soviet times.

Today one can see a rampart and the ruins of the cells as well as two five-angle bastions and the remnants of the XVI-XVIІІ  century palace castle.

Olesko

 

Location: 22 km from Busk

 

It is supposed that Olesko Castle was built by the son of Yuriy Lvovych.

Historic literature has it that in the year 1327 Olesko was a defensive centre with a castle.

First detailed and trustworthy mention about the castle dates back to the year 1390 (Bull of the Pope Bonifatsiy IX who made a present of Olesko and Tustan castles to catholic Bishop). In 1432 Olesko Castle after enduring siege was captured by Polish troops.

In XVI – XVII centuries the castle was renovated in Italian Renaissance style.

In 1605 the castle and a few villages were handed over to Rus’ magnet Ivan Danylovych who finished the reconstruction in 1620. Two-storey premises in the eastern and western parts of the castle, entrance tower, galleries between the premises and the arms appear on the entrance fence. With a modern look the castle becomes a powerful magnet residence.

Quotes of French visitor Dayleraque in those times: ‘all the rooms are very nice, spacious, high and well-lit, made of fake marble tiles. There is a nice arch in the servant’s room.

The well is incredibly deep because to get the water one had to dig it to the basic of the hill. Everything has a scent of the antiquity of a high style residence.’

In 1629 the castle witnessed the bith of king-to-be Jan III Sobiesky who later lived in the castle and collected a number of masterpieces. There is some data that on Danylovych’s courtyard there was father of Bohdan Khmelnytskyy named Mykhaylo.

In 1636 Danylovych family had completely died out and their belongings were handed down to Jacob Sobiesky, the father of Jan III. In 1648 the castle was captured by Cossacks and was badly damaged. After the castle was released by Cossacks, Jan Sobiesky considered the castle as his belonging.

After the King’s and Queen’s death, the castle belonged to their son who sold the castle to Stanislav Zhevusky in 1719. Later his son Severyn became the new owner and rebuilt the castle into palace. Then it was decided to name all the rooms.

What didn’t people damage, the fire did. Thus lightning struck the castle in 1951 and it burst into flame. Too many exhibits and architecture values were burnt, and the castle was slowly dying out.

Architects, masters, restorers have managed to renovate the castle. In the end of 1975 it was opened as a museum.